代币经济

FLOW代币经济

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Flow 是开放世界的区块链 。

由Ethereum网络上一些最成功的加密应用背后的团队开发,Flow 是一个从头开始重新设计的blockchain ,以方便用户和开发者,以及模块化和面向未来。

Flow '新颖的四节点架构在速度和成本方面实现了巨大的改进,可随着硬件容量的增加而扩展,而不会影响去中心化或将网络分片或使用"Layer 2"解决方案。要了解更多信息,请访问Primer页面

FLOW token ("FLOW"或""Lu_1D53D"")是Flow 网络的原生货币,也是建立一个新的、包容的、无边界的数字经济的基石。如果说区块链是数字基础设施,那么Flow token 就是为网络提供动力的燃料。
FLOW 有几个重要的特点,使其成为新一代游戏、消费者应用以及为其提供动力的数字资产的理想货币。

  • Diverse use-cases
  • Broad distribution
  • Low monetary inflation

Each of these is explained in more detail below.

Diverse use-cases

FLOW 是建立在Flow 区块链上的应用、游戏和智能合约的原生货币,因此是保证开发者和用户可以在网络上进行交易的货币。开发者可以轻松地将FLOW 直接构建到他们的应用程序中,用于点对点支付、服务收费,或让消费者能够为他们创造的价值赚取奖励。FLOW 也可以由用户点对点持有、转让或交易。

Token 的持有者可以通过抵押他们的FLOW 作为保证金,并通过运行验证器节点来确保网络安全--或将他们的抵押委托给专业运营商代表他们运行验证器节点来赚取奖励。验证者节点通过提供网络所需的安全、计算和存储服务来换取押注奖励和交易费用。

网络上的每一项活动--从新用户账户到资产和智能合约的存储,也需要少量的FLOW token 。随着网络的成熟,FLOW 代币持有者将能够以不断发展的方式使用他们的FLOW 。

  • 支付计算和验证服务(即交易费用)
  • 交易所
  • Deposit for data storage
  • 二级代币的抵押品
  • Participation in governance

对各方来说完美的支付体验:买家用他们拥有的任何货币支付;卖家用他们想要的任何货币定价和接收付款。Flow 上的应用都可以现实这一目的。Flow 具有高吞吐量、低费用和完整的 ACID 保证,允许开发人员实现去中心化交易所(DEX),作为代币之间的交换媒介。Flow 具备功能包括承受高频的交易避免对于 DEX 的各种攻击。

FLOW 代币在网络上无处不在的特性,使其成为交易量较少的代币对之间的货币交换的"桥梁资产"。随着Flow 上的二级代币的数量变得庞大,可能的交易对的数量会成倍增加,这意味着一些代币交换将需要FLOW 。

重要的是,FLOW 是网络上所有其他代币的创建和使用所需要的--用于支付存储和/或作为抵押品。这些细节在下面的技术细节部分概述,并将在未来的白皮书中充分说明。经济上的影响是,随着在Flow blockchain 上更多的价值应用被创建,对FLOW 代币本身将会产生更多的需求。

Broad distribution

The distribution of the native token is critical to the network’s decentralization and long-term success. Centralized control over the token supply prevents easy access by developers, who require the native token to deploy new smart contracts and pay for transaction fees (“gas”) as well as cover storage and account deposits on the network.

For Flow to achieve its full potential, a safe and sustainable distribution strategy is critical: we must get FLOW token into the right people’s hands. Alongside technical capability and crypto-economic security, we recognize that a healthy and sustainable distribution strategy is essential for making the Flow blockchain successful in the long term.

FLOW will be the catalyst for diverse new communities to access blockchain and decentralized applications, building and benefiting from real use-cases rather than speculation. Good user experience design will make owning and using FLOW seamless. Ultimately, FLOW will bring all of the communities building on the network together to create and share value.
Flow is pioneering several large scale engagement programs:

  • 云爆合作伙伴:由FLOW 持有者选出的组织或个人,负责运营一个或多个Flow 验证节点,并向为Flow 网络构建内容的开发者、设计师、艺术家、社区组织者和企业家发放奖励。
  • 洪荒验证者:开发者、基础设施合作伙伴以及其他早期支持者,帮助引导大量关键的内容和提供去中心化资源的生态系统参与者。
  • 去中心化声誉和激励协议(DRIP):DRIP是为无障碍和帮助Flow 上的应用程序找到一个参与的用户群而设计的,DRIP将FLOW token 分发给最终用户,用于、Staking、授权和积极参与Flow 经济。

Thanks to robust technology, an amazing community, and strong incentive design, FLOW will enable today’s early adopters to build tomorrow’s open worlds.

低通胀

像Flow这样的区块链由去中心化社区提供运行计算机硬件("验证节点"),这些硬件支持网络上的活动并确保资产的价值。其他区块链严重依赖通过创造和分发新的tokens ("货币通货膨胀"),以吸引验证者节点运营商加入其网络。

不幸的是,与所有经济体一样,货币通货膨胀是有成本的:新创造的tokens 供应量通过稀释所有token ,充当了代币持有者日常使用的税收。这就是为什么Flow 对货币通胀有上限的原因。事实上,随着网络费用的增加,Flow 的通货膨胀率会下降。

在稳定状态下,Flow 保证对节点运营商有一个固定的支付额度,只有在必要时才会发行新的tokens ,以弥补交易费用和该保证支付额度之间的差额。当交易费用接近这个赔付金额时,新的发行量接近0%。如果交易费用超过支付金额,则会被存放在一个托管账户中,用来无限期抵消未来的通货膨胀。

在运行的第一年,货币通货膨胀率会比较高,以激励更多的人抵押,同时抵押品、支付和其他补充部分的Flow 经济成熟。

Technical Details

Transaction Processing and Computation

作为一个去中心化的网络,Flow 对用户--或者他们正在使用的应用--按每次行动收取服务费,类似于今天亚马逊Lambda对处理能力的收费方式。

Flow 网络上有两种费用。

  • Processing fees cover the fees for a transaction to be submitted and included in a block.
  • Computation fees are added for more complex operations that require computation beyond updating balances.

Especially in the early days of the network, transaction fees will be low, starting at 0.001 FLOW, or 1 mF (milli FLOW).

Staking Rewards and Inflation

作为POS权益证明网络,Flow 网络要求验证者节点锁定以FLOW tokens 计价的保证金,才能作为运行blockchain 的基础设施的一部分参与其中。这就是所谓的 Staking。Staking 可以防止低成本的女巫攻击(即一个行为人伪装成许多个人,以获得对网络的不当影响),并充当保证金,如果验证者试图对网络进行攻击,保证金会被扣减。

Flow 每年通过新发行(通货膨胀)和交易费用(与通货膨胀相结合,即"总奖励")的组合,将FLOW token 总供应量中的固定部分作为奖励分配给验证者节点运营商。奖励总额将谨慎选择,在维护网络安全的前提下,尽可能少的奖励(目前考虑设定为每年token 总供应量的3.75%)。过度膨胀会造成一系列意想不到的后果,并使token 对非staking用途的吸引力降低。

为了确保激励委托人在任何特定时间进入最需要的节点角色,分配给每个角色的总收入会通过一组被称为奖励系数的乘数进行调整。这些值由协议自动调整:如果某个特定角色相对于其他角色一直处于不足的状态,协议将增加对该节点类型的支付,直到实际抵押余额趋近于目标比例。下图中节点池之间的初始分成(为优化安全性而计算)。


Flow 节点遵循协议中定义的程序(基于其角色)以获得奖励。任何偏离协议的行为都会导致奖励金的减少或惩罚。这种奖惩结构的设计是为了保证协议的安全性,并随着时间的推移优化性能。

严重的违规行为,破坏了网络的安全,可能会导致部分或全部的有抵押 tokens 被没收并销毁。这就是所谓的"Slashing"(罚没)。本文档概述了导致罚没最严重的违反协议的行为("罚没条件")。执行这些条件对协议的加密经济安全至关重要。Flow只有对安全和稳定性的严重威胁才是可惩罚的条件,因此,没有与性能相关的惩罚措施。

Paying for Storage: Minimum FLOW Balance

Storage on Flow can be associated with individual user accounts, rather than to smart contracts: this is a subtle capability with significant positive impact on the user experience of Flow applications. On blockchains without this capability, any non-payment of “state rent” on behalf of the smart contract developer could cause all users’ assets to get wiped. On Flow, a user’s assets can never disappear or be purged without their consent.

Flow covers the cost of on-chain storage on a per-account level simply by requiring a minimum balance as a locked deposit (in FLOW): this deposit is never spent, but is held out of circulation, increasing staking rewards to the validator nodes providing the storage.

The minimum balance of a Flow account at launch will be a fraction of one FLOW, enough to cover most initial activities. To make onboarding easier, this minimum balance can be provided by developers on behalf of users in cases where the developer has a defined business model (e.g. charging users subscription fees or selling in-game items). Developers that don’t have access to FLOW can borrow from token-holders directly or through setting up their own secondary token and exchanging it for FLOW from the community: a form of decentralized, trustless, crowdfunding.

A higher FLOW balance means the user or developer has access to more storage capacity. It is expected that storage capacity per unit of FLOW locked will increase dramatically over time as validators achieve economies of scale and cost of storage falls.

The Flow Ecosystem Reserve has the mandate to distribute over 10 million accounts in the first few years of the network, working with a broad alliance of community organizations. This ensures accessibility onto Flow for anyone that wants to use or build on it.

While storage requirements for fungible tokens are very small, the on-chain storage – and associated minimum balance of FLOW – required for NFTs can be significant since every one is unique. Power users can maintain their own balance to access higher storage capacities.  

In the long term, user agents (wallets) and dapps can in turn help their users “recycle” storage on the network by deleting resources or, just as easily, backing them up to off chain or archival chain solutions (e.g. Filecoin, arweave, or equivalent solutions built on Flow directly).

Service Protocols

An emerging new business model for decentralized applications, service protocols (also known as middleware protocols) are smart contracts that provide services that are used by applications across the network. Chris Burniske explains:

Others have called these service-layer protocols, as they focus on providing a specific service to the interface layer, be they financial, social, technological, etc. Financial services include things like exchange, lending, and risk-management; social services offer functionality like voting structures, arbitration, or legal-contract management; technological services include components like caching, storage, location, and maybe the granddaddy of them all, a unified OS for protocol services to be neatly bundled to the interface layer.

Service protocols are open source, so their code is easy to move across blockchains. The value that’s hard to replicate lies in the state they coordinate: the network effects between all the various ecosystem participants as well as the end-users of the service. 

On other blockchains, this state will have to be broken up or bridged across shards, adding complexity, cost, latency, and potential for errors in applications that use them. Sharding throws a wet towel on the network effects that give service protocols value in the first place. 

On Flow, service protocols always exist in the same shared, ACID-compliant, state as every user, app, and other smart contract on the network. This makes them much more likely to be built on by other developers, accelerating their network effects.

灌注:二级令牌的新模式

On blockchains today, most service protocols use secondary tokens that do not accrue value back to the ecosystem they’re built on. As a result, they have different incentives compared to the blockchains whose security they depend on. On Flow, we incentivize key service protocols to “infuse” their tokens through a bonding curve mechanism with the native FLOW token. 

Bonding curves were originally developed as a mechanism for providing robust price discovery and liquidity to tokens, even when they are thinly traded. For example, an infused token INF would be controlled by a smart contract that allows anyone to mint a new INF token if they provide the appropriate amount of FLOW at the current exchange rate, while also very slightly increasing the exchange rate for the next trader (resulting in a price that increases with demand). Conversely, that same smart contract would allow an INF holder to redeem their holdings for FLOW at the current price (minus a small spread), pushing the exchange rate slightly lower. (these two posts provide a great introduction to bonding curves.)

Infused Tokens take this idea one step further and note that, if the Reserve Token has a security and governance function, the tokens locked under the bonding curve can be used to allow the service protocol to support the security of the underlying chain while directly and actively participating in protocol governance.

As such, an infused token combines four key benefits to its holders:

  • 流动性保证: 联合曲线意味着服务 token 的持有者始终知道有一个流动性市场可以将代币兑换为 FLOW 。这将让服务协议迅速获得人们的意识和兴趣,因为支持者从第一天起就知道他们的 token 有流动性。
  • 减少波动性:在需求不断变化的时候,token ,联合曲线可以让价格和供应都做出相应的调整。这就减少了经常困扰固定供应代币的繁荣与萧条周期的规模和可能性。
  • Contributing to security: by using FLOW as collateral, the service protocol is backing the security it demands from the network. More FLOW locked as collateral means fewer available for staking, allowing market forces to allocate resources accordingly.
  • 参与协议治理: 由FLOW 抵押的二级令牌,将能够通过与投票二级代币参与 Flow 协议治理。这是最佳的,因为服务协议的所有者和运营商可以说是智能合约区块链中最重要的一些利益相关者。

Flow may contribute a large portion of its ecosystem fund to bootstrap early service protocols that benefit the entire network, including at least one decentralized stablecoin. These funds would never be released directly into circulation: instead they would be used to backstop and subsidize protocols that themselves generate activity across the network.

Stablecoins on Flow

Stablecoins are cryptographic tokens whose value is stabilized relative to a given fiat currency – or basket of currencies.

The value of stablecoins in consumer applications and games is that, especially initially, mainstream consumers (and the businesses that serve them) may prefer to transact in their local currency. Similarly, businesses that need to make forward commitments will value predictability and the ability to book revenue in the same currency as their costs.

Stablecoins are simple to implement on Flow – and several are already on the way. There are generally two kinds of stablecoins; both require FLOW tokens to pay for their network resources:

  • Fiat-backed stablecoins are fungible tokens whose supply is based on an equivalent amount of fiat currency available for redemption, typically in an audited bank account. Like all Flow users, holders of fiat-backed stablecoins still require a minimum balance of FLOW – this can be provided on their behalf by the application.
  • Algorithmic stablecoins use FLOW token itself as collateral to create a secondary token whose supply is adjusted automatically to stabilize its value relative to given fiat currencies. Flow has reserved a significant allocation of FLOW tokens to bootstrap the collateral for at least two implementations of algorithmic stablecoins on the network whose security is rooted in the native FLOW token itself.

Over time, as users learn to value FLOW for its functionality on the network, the native token may start being preferable as a medium of exchange based on its inherent liquidity and direct usage.

Governance

在启动时,Flow 协议将实行非正式的链外治理:开发团队将独立运作,其任务是为去中心化社区建设。与今天的比特币或Ethereum类似,任何人都可以在Flow GitHub repo上提交改进建议,然后由Flow's首席架构师Dieter Shirley & Alex Hentschel领导的核心开发团队进行审核。协议升级将被提交给节点运营商,然后由他们独立决定是否采用。

从2020年底开始,在社区努力的推动下,链上投票将开始作为一种信号机制:投票将不具有约束力,但它们将对整个社区可见,并将指导开发团队的工作。

此外,在第一年,各种生态系统开发工作将分散在去中心化自治组织(DAO)中,这些组织将需要FLOW 或'FLOW-infused'代币进行投票。建立在Flow 网络之上的服务协议(例如稳定币)将是协议的第一个主要组件,将被转移到完全链上治理。

随着时间的推移,Flow 社区将被要求帮助定义并提供关于实施链上治理的网络升级的反馈。最初,FLOW 利益相关者将投票选出一个可以做出日常决策的代表理事会。理事会的投票作为一个"默许",每个token-持有人可以通过什么都不做来接受--或者主动推翻。

提案可以在一个公开论坛上提出,对任何能够访问blockchain 的人都完全透明。在实践中,我们希望大部分的决定由理事会做出,而不需要token 利益相关者进行投票。也就是说,所有的决定都将公开做出,任何利益相关者都有机会组织token 利益相关者采取基层行动,否决具体的决定或投票更换理事会成员。通过治理程序做出的决定将有三种。

  • 生态决策:与网络运作有关的、无法在协议定义中表达的问题。这包括选择理事会成员和最后确定基金会设立的任何赠款或奖金等事项。
  • 协议参数:协议的某些方面(如每种节点类型的可用席位数)被设定为参数,不需要协议升级(因此也不需要节点软件的新版本)。这些参数可以通过治理程序进行修改。
  • 协议升级: 协议升级(也称为"硬分叉")理论上可以改变协议的任何内容;共识算法、底层网络通信结构、修改或增加新的执行环境。在实践中,这类升级将极为罕见,需要每个FLOW 利益攸关方的大量参与和接受。

作为创始团队,我们希望在这份文件中记录下对几个关键原则的哲学承诺,我们打算大力维护这些原则,即使在网络过渡到社区治理之后。我们鼓励未来的社区成员谨慎行事,如果他们考虑采取违反这些原则的行动。

  • 保持各类型节点之间的力量平衡。
  • Keeping the inflation rate as low as possible (currently a maximum of 3.75%)
  • 确保FLOW 作为二级代币的主要抵押储备资产
  • Ensuring that transaction and storage fees are responsive to market demand over longer time frames (days and weeks), while being highly predictable over short time frames (minutes and hours)

Conclusion: Genesis

甚至在推出之前,Flow 网络、其相关的工具和组件,以及在上面开发的内容,就已经是多个公司和国家的 100 多名开发人员、设计师和产品人员的集体努力。

随着产品完全开源、token 铸成,以及主网功能的完全发挥,新一代的企业家、开发人员、设计师和创造者可以参与到Flow 。

Flow 是为主流采用而设计的。网络上已经在开发的应用程序服务于数以亿计的粉丝。这为社区提供了一个机会来构建新的产品和服务,尝试新的业务和融资模式,以及社区驱动的治理和最终所有权。

Flow 是一个快速实验的沙盒,同时也是一个可靠的、面向未来的基础,可以随着时间的推移而发展。

FLOW token 反过来又将为开发者启动全新的商业模式,并让数以百万计的早期采用者进入他们与 dapp 的第一次互动。最终,FLOW 将把所有建立和使用网络的社区聚集在一起,创造和分享价值。

Flow 的使命是让世界变得更加开放、透明和令人愉悦。加入我们吧

这里有几个关键的资源,可以帮助创建者们入门。

  • Flow Primer阅读 Flow 的独特架构,我们不相信其他可扩展性解决方案的原因,以及为什么我们的方法对用户和开发人员更好。
  • Flow Playground: learn Cadence, the first high-level resource-oriented programming language, and write your first Flow smart contracts with our awesome tutorials.
  • Journey of a Transaction (soon): follow the user journey from account creation to transaction signing to see how Flow differs from existing networks – and why it’s better.
  • Developer tools: once you’re ready to start building, get excited because the Flow emulator, SDKs, command line interface, and associated tooling is awesome.
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